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      Water is essential to life.

      Unlimited access to clean, safe water is taken for granted in many places, but water scarcity is a growing concern worldwide.

      Overuse, increasing demand, pollution, poor management, lack of infrastructure, and changes in weather patterns due to global warming are key stressors that affect the availability of fresh water. Many major cities across the globe are at risk of a water crisis, and water stress is projected to increase in most countries in the coming decades, threatening regional stability and raising the possibility of forced migrations. In addition, the issue of water availability is not just a human problem—our demands on lakes, rivers, and streams can dramatically harm ecosystems and the natural processes that require water.

      Learn about the problem of water scarcity and the major threats to our water, and dive deep into some of the diverse solutions that exist to conserve, protect, and equitably manage Earth’s water resources for human and nonhuman life.

      Less than 1% of Earth’s water is usable fresh water.

      Know the Problem

      Water scarcity is a growing concern worldwide. Unsustainable and ever-growing demands on our freshwater resources have taxed aquifers and surface waters in many places, harming ecosystems and threatening future economic growth. A regional water crisis, often triggered by drought, can result in famine, forced migration, and other humanitarian emergencies. Explore the critical problem of water scarcity and some of its associated effects.

      Q&A Earth Banner
      1.2 billion

      Number of people who live in areas of physical water scarcity

      2.1 billion

      Number of people who lack access to safe and reliable drinking water at home


      One-third of the world’s large aquifer systems are in distress.

      Know the Causes

      There are numerous threats to our water resources. Human demands often exceed sustainable water consumption levels, and the pollution we generate harms aquatic systems and renders the contaminated water unsafe to use. In addition, global warming increases the likelihood of extreme weather events, including drought and excessive heat, and is expected put additional stressors on water availability and global distribution. Read more about the causes of our global water crisis.

      Know the Solutions

      One of the best ways to address water scarcity is to conserve water and treat it as something truly precious. Beyond that, there are a number of technological, ecological, and economic solutions that can help ensure humans and natural systems have sufficient access to safe water. Dive into some of the solutions and get inspired by the possibilities!

      Take Action Against water crisis

      There is no planet B.

      Do your part to change our course in history. Learn more about how you can work to solve Earth’s environmental challenges in your home and in your community.